Saturday, 26 October 2013


Assalamualaikum wbt,


Menurut Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO),seramai 2.8 juta orang telah meninggal dunia setiap tahun disebabkan masalah berat badan berlebihan atau obesiti.Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) juga menganggarkan lebih satu bilion manusia seluruh dunia mengalami masalah berat badan dan jika berterusan kadar obesiti akan meningkat sehingga 1.5 bilion menjelang 2015.

Bersempena Obesity Day pada 26 Oktober 2013,mengambil inisiatif untuk cuba menyedarkan masyarakat, Persatuan Perubatan Islam Malaysia(PPIM) Moscow telah bersetuju untuk turut serta dengan NGO-NGO lain dalam mengadakan kempen kesedaran ini kepada masyarakat.

Brochure kempen akan diedarkan kepada para pelajar di Moscow mengikut lokaliti hostel masing-masing. Bagi yang tidak dapat, brochure online turut disediakan.

Mudah sahaja, anda klik pada link, baca atau muat turun utk simpanan.:-)

Berikut disediakan brochure online sempena Obesity Day ini :

Wednesday, 23 October 2013

Tuberculosis and Pneumonia

Previously we have discussed about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which is caused mainly by smoking habits.Now we are going to continue our studies on Tuberculosis and Pneumonia.


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is transmitted via airborne particles. Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through tiny droplets of infected sputum that travel through the air. If an infected person coughs, sneezes, shouts, or spits, bacteria can enter the air and come into contact with uninfected people who breath the bacteria into their lungs. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis is spread by small airborne droplets. Cell-mediated response by the body causes accumulation of activated T lymphocytes and macrophages to form a “granuloma” that limits replication of organism. Destruction of the macrophages produces early “solid necrosis.” In 2–3 weeks, this forms a soft cheesy necrotic environment; develops “caseous necrosis” establishing latency. In people with intact immunity, it generally undergoes “fibrosis” and calcification; in people with less effective immune systems, it progresses to primary progressive tuberculosis.

Monday, 21 October 2013

Common Disease Related To Respiratory Disease (COPD)

Here are the most common disease of respiratory system in Malaysia:

1) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
2) Tuberculosis
3) Pneumonia

We decide to discuss about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease first:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of illness in the community associated mainly with cigarette smoking.  It is a progressive disease with considerable morbidity and mortality.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a condition characterised by persistent airflow obstruction, which is slowly progressive.  It may be partially reversible and there may be features of airway hyperreactivity.  Traditionally, it comprises chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Chronic bronchitis is defined by the presence of increased bronchial secretions with chronic cough and expectoration on most days for at least 3 months a year in two consecutive years.
Emphysema is defined anatomically by permanent destructive enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles without obvious fibrosis.


a)      Chronic bronchitis

Hyperplasia of the secretory cells and mucous gland enlargement are the histological hallmarks of chronic bronchitis, and these are the tissue correlates of increased sputum production.  These changes are due to repeated irritation by pollutants and infections. Airway wall inflammation, stenosis and distortion due to fibrosis may also be present. The small bronchi and bronchioles are the main sites of the increased resistance to airflow.

b)   Emphysema

Two main forms of emphysema are described.Centriacinar emphysema is characterised by focal destruction restricted to respiratory bronchioles and the central portion of an acinus, surrounded by relatively normal lung.  Panacinar emphysema involves destruction of all the air spaces supplied by the terminal bronchiole.  The current view is that emphysema occurs as a result of an imbalance between proteases and anti-protease resulting in a relative increase in proteases and resultant destruction of lung tissue.

Tuesday, 8 October 2013

Our Lungs Anatomy and Physiology

Assalamualaikum wbt,
Hope that we’re all in His protection and may Allah favor everything that we do. It’s been a while since we posted an article in our blog. Alhamdulillah this semester, we decided to come out with some medical articles  and inshaAllah our main point is not to replace your  lecturer, but instead  we  would like to  try our very best to encourage  the  medical students  to be  more interested in what  they all are doing now and hopefully they will become a good doctor one day.

Topics: What you might not know about lungs? (Anatomy and Physiology)

Before you read this article, you should open one of the organ which is able detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.That’s your eyes! :)

#Facts2 :
The word ‘lung’ probably comes from ‘lunge’, the Old English word for ‘light.’
#Facts3 :

There are about 600 million alveoli in your lungs. If you stretched all of them out, they would be about the size of a volleyball court in the Burevestnik hall!Subhanallah.


The anatomy of the respiratory system can be divided into 2 major parts, airway anatomy and lung anatomy.
Airway anatomy can be further subdivided into the following 2 segments:
  • The extrathoracic (superior) airway, which includes the supraglottic, glottic, and infraglottic regions
  • The intrathoracic (inferior) airway, which includes the trachea, the mainstem bronchi, and multiple bronchial generations (which have as their main function the conduction of air to the alveolar surface)

For a better understanding about our lungs and their system, first we need to have a detail information about anatomy and topography of the lungs.
Topography of lungs
This respiratory organs lie on either side of mediastinum normally the right one a little larger than the other one. This related to the fact that at the middle mediastinum containing the heart, bulges more to the left than to the right.